Fetal and neonatal thrombocytopenia
Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid
Thrombocytopenia is defined as platelet count less than 150,000 plat/mm3. Etiologic factors involved include immunological (NAIT and ITP), fetal infectious disease, chromosomal and nonchromosomal, and miscellaneous causes. While the understanding of fetal thrombocytopenia is driven by reason to do fetal blood sampling, discovery of neonatal thrombocytopenia is driven by blood counts performed because of the risk of infections. The most serious consequence of thrombocytopenia in the fetus/neonate is intracranial hemorrhage which can occur in utero as early as 18 weeks gestation. The key factor in perinatal prevention of intracranial hemorrhage is early diagnosis and treatment, possibly in utero. Cordocentesis under direct ultrasound guidance and platelet transfusions have played a major role in the management of fetal/neonatal thrombocytopenia. Ongoing studies and high resolution ultrasound will continue to explore and hopefully clarify fetal and neonatal thrombocytopenia and facilitate recognition of primary and secondary thrombocytopenias.