Evaluation of the heart and atrial tree in hypertension
Measurement of left ventricular and arterial structure and function using ultrasound provides information about cardiovascular adaptation to human hypertension. Standardized methods of M-mode, two-dimensional, and Doppler echocardiography and arterial ultrasonography are outlined in this review. Their use can detect a spectrum of left ventricular geometric patterns (concentric and eccentric hypertrophy and concentric remodeling), altered left ventricular contractility, pump function, and filling, and arterial hypertrophy and atherosclerosis. Detection of these abnormalities helps to stratify the level of risk and identify pathophysiological patterns in hypertensive patients.