Acute hypoxemic respiratory failure in children following bone marrow transplantation: An outcome and pathologic study
Bone Marrow Transplantation
The acute mortality rate (88%) for children with acute hypoxemic respiratory failure after bone marrow transplantation is similar to that reported for adults with this combination of conditions. Diffuse alveolar damage, the histologic hallmark of adult respiratory distress syndrome, was present in a minority (33%) of patients. Infectious pneumonia was the most frequent cause of acute hypoxemic respiratory failure in patients who had pathologic tissue available, emphasizing the need for aggressive diagnostic studies and early institution of antifungal and antiviral therapy.