Antibody Response to Murine Anti-GD2 Monoclonal Antibodies: Correlation with Patient Survival
Clinical strategies which modulate the human anti-mouse antibody response (HAMA) in patients may have a profound influence on the idiotype network inducible by murine monoclonal antibodies (MoAb). Prior to myeloablative chemotherapy (ABMT), 9 patients with Stage IV neuroblastoma were imaged with 131I-3F8, a MoAb specific for the ganglioside GD2. Their serum HAMA, anti-idiotypic, anti-GD2, and anti-anti-idiotypic antibodies were assayed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay prior to, and at 3 and 6 months postimaging. HAMA and anti-idiotypic levels remained low, in contrast to the high levels in 10 patients imaged with 131I-3F8 without ABMT. Five of the 9 patients are long-term survivors; all had elevated anti-GD2 and anti-anti-idiotypic levels, significantly higher than those who died of disease. Although 131I-3F8 imaging prior to ABMT detected abnormal sites in 4 of 9 patients, 3 of the 4 patients have continued in remission for 24-63 months after ABMT, and all 3 mounted anti-GD2 and anti-anti-idiotypic antibody responses. We conclude that myeloablative therapy strongly suppressed the HAMA/anti-idiotypic response to murine MoAb and that the prognostic significance of host immune response to ganglioside GD2 MoAb deserves further investigation.