Use of neoadjuvant androgen deprivation therapy in clinically localized prostate cancer
Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols
Radical prostatectomy is an excellent form of treatment of pathologically organ-confined prostatic carcinoma. However, most clinically localized prostatic cancers have pathologic evidence of extracapsular spread, limiting the effectiveness of radical surgery in curing this disease. To improve the organ-confined rate of prostate cancer, we studied the effect of preoperative or neoadjuvant androgen deprivation therapy (ADT). Our initial attempts focused on downstaging locally advanced tumors (T3) with neoadjuvant diethylstilbestrol (3 mg/d). Our study of 59 patients revealed that although there were significant clinical signs of downstaging, most patients still had extraprostatic disease. However, a subset of patients demonstrated marked pathologic regression, so we initiated a nonrandomized but controlled study of neoadjuvant ADT (goserelin acetate and flutamide for 3 months) followed by radical prostatectomy in patients with clinically localized prostate cancer. Of 72 control and 69 study patients, the rate of organ-confined disease was 48% and 74% (including 4% with no detectable residual carcinoma), respectively. In addition, the margin-positive rate was 33% and 10%, respectively. As demonstrated in the previous study, changes in serum prostate-specific antigen, transrectal ultrasonographic evaluations, and digital rectal examinations could not predict those patients with favourable pathology. Our results suggest that neoadjuvant ADT may improve the pathologic stage in some prostatic carcinomas and is worthy of further investigation in the efforts to augment the effectiveness of radical prostatectomy.