The management of clinically unconfirmed positive urinary cytology
Carcinoma, Transitional Cell
An aggressive evaluation of extravesical sites of disease in patients with clinically unconfirmed positive urinary cytology findings is indicated only in previously untreated asymptomatic or symptomatic patients (group 1) and in those with a complete response to intravesical therapy who are without evidence of disease for 1 year (group 4). Patients who have positive urinary cytology findings immediately after complete transurethral resection of bladder tumors or intravesical therapy will almost always have recurrent bladder transitional cell carcinoma and do not require aggressive extravesical evaluation initially. Transurethral resection prostate biopsy between the 5 and 7 o'clock positions along the entire length of the prostatic urethra is the technique of choice for detecting transitional cell carcinoma of the prostate, since other less invasive techniques frequently underestimate the extent of disease. In the absence of radiographic disease, bilateral ureteral lavage cytology is the technique of choice to identify the upper tract as the source of a positive urinary cytology result. Rigid and flexible ureteropyeloscopy should be performed only in the presence of radiographic or cytological evidence of upper tract transitional cell carcinoma, or in patients with a history of upper tract disease who have suspected relapse on the basis of a positive urinary cytology result.