Molecular characterization of a variant Ph1 translocation t(9;22;11) (q34;q11;q13) in chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) reveals the translocation of the 3'-part of BCR gene to the chromosome band 11q13
Chromosomes, Human, Pair 11
Chromosomes, Human, Pair 22
Chromosomes, Human, Pair 9
Leukemia, Myelogenous, Chronic, BCR-ABL Positive
We performed cloning and sequence analysis of translocation junctions at 11q- and 22q- (Ph1) chromosomes and the corresponding germline DNAs of a variant Ph1-positive CML with t(9;22;11)(q34;q11;q13). Southern blot analysis using probes for different regions of bcr mapped the translocation break near the 5'-side of bcr exon 4. Cloning, Southern blot analysis and restriction map analysis of both bcr fragments showed that the part of bcr 3'- to the translocation break moved to 11q13. Sequence analysis of the translocation junction on the Ph1 chromosome showed that the translocation break occurred 63 bp upstream of exon 4. Compared to the germline sequence, bcr sequence from the translocated partners showed deletion of seven basepairs at the site of translocation. A probe derived from the 5'-region of the clone isolated from the 11q- chromosome identified clonal rearrangements in the leukemic DNA. Restriction map and sequence analysis showed that this clone consisted of the 3'-half of the glutathione S-transferase Pi (GST-Pi) gene and the 3'-part of bcr. We identified two point mutations in the GST-Pi allele involved in translocation. Northern blot analysis showed that the GST-Pi gene was expressed in the leukemic cells at blast crisis but not at chronic phase; however, no fusion mRNA between GST-Pi and bcr was identified. We did not find any sequence homology between 11q13 DNA and 22q11 DNA around the translocation breakpoints; however, sequences homologous to ALU repeats were identified close to the sites of translocation breaks at 22q11 and 11q13. This study supports our hypothesis that variant Ph1 translocations may occur as primary cytogenetic changes similar to the classical Ph1 translocations.