13C- and 31P-NMR studies of human colon cancer in-vitro and in-vivo
Head and Neck Neoplasms
We report comparative 31P-NMR studies in-vivo and in-vitro of the human adenocarcinoma cell line HCT-116 in a high-density, perfused microcarrier culture and as a tumour from the same cell line grown in three different immune-suppressed animal models (NIH triple deficient, Nude, SCID). The phosphate metabolite ratios, pHNMR and intracellular free magnesium, derived from the 31P-NMR spectra, were compared for the in-vivo and in-vitro systems. Results obtained with HCT-116 cells on microcarrier beads are quantitatively similar to that of small (122 mm3), tumours in-vivo derived from the same cell line in any of the immune-suppressed animal systems studied. This suggests that in-vitro microcarrier cell culture serves as a useful model system for deriving information about metabolism of small, tumours in-vivo. It offers the additional advantages of allowing for precise control of substrate milieu, perfusion and oxygenation. The microcarrier system was also used to measure flux through glycolysis and the pentose cycle. In particular, we measured glucose utilization and the production of lactate, alanine, glutamine and glycogen in proton-decoupled 13C-NMR experiments following administration of [1-13C]glucose. We found that (63% +/- 6%) of the glucose utilized was released as [3-13C] lactate in the presence of oxygen, indicating that the HCT-116 cells have a high level of aerobic glycolysis. Serial labelling experiments with [1-13C] glucose and [6-13C] glucose reveal that at least (11.6% +/- 1.3%) of the glucose utilized enters the pentose cycle. We determined that (6.9% +/- 1.2%) of the glucose utilized is recycled to glucose via the pentose cycle while (4.7% +/- 1.4%) of the glucose utilized enters the pentose cycle to form lactate. The high rate of recycling via the pentose cycle suggests that a significant fraction of cellular NADPH is generated by the pentose cycle as opposed to generation by the malate-pyruvate shuttle.