Early response gene induction following DNA damage in astrocytoma cell lines
Surveys and Questionnaires
Early response genes (ERGs) are a group of genes with low or absent expression in quiescent cells that can be induced rapidly by a variety of proliferation and differentiation stimuli. c-jun and c-fos are prototypes for this group of genes. Recent evidence suggests that DNA damaging agents such as cytotoxic drugs and ionizing radiation can elicit strong ERG induction, suggesting that these genes may be involved in DNA damage repair and/or cell death. Paralleling this interest in drug-induced ERG expression is a growing body of evidence implicating ERG expression as important to the intrinsic function of the central nervous system. We therefore set out to explore the pattern of chemotherapeutic drug- and radiation-induced c-jun and c-fos expression in neuroectodermally (astrocytic) derived cell lines. We have demonstrated that various chemotherapeutic agents and ionizing radiation can induce c-jun in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. Furthermore, this induction can be prevented by pretreatment of the cells with agents that protect against DNA damage. Finally, we have demonstrated that c-fos and c-jun expression and induction are discoordinately regulated, reflecting a difference in astrocytic cell lines compared to hematopoietic cell lines. The possible relevance of these observations to the clinical resistance of astrocytic tumors to standard chemotherapy and radiation is discussed.