Plasma lipid, lipoprotein cholesterol, and apoprotein distributions in selected US communities: The atherosclerosis risk in communities (ARIC) study
The distributions of plasma lipids, lipoproteins, and apoproteins of 14,524 female and male black and white participants 45 to 64 years old in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study are presented. All specimens were analyzed at a central laboratory. Mean total cholesterol levels increased with increasing age across all ages from 204 to 229 mg/dL (12%) in women and from 208 to 213 mg/dL (2%) in men. Triglyceride levels increased with age in women, remained stable in men, and were higher in whites than blacks. High-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol levels were higher in black and white women (range, 57 to 59 mg/dL) compared with black men (49 to 52 mg/dL) or white men (42 to 43 mg/dL). Cholesterol associated with HDL was distributed in a relatively constant proportion between HDL3 (70% to 76%) and HDL2 (24% to 30%) for all race/sex groups. Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol levels increased with age in black (14.7%) and white (17.1%) women and in black (4.4%) and white (3.7%) men; more than 50% of all participants had LDL cholesterol levels > 130 mg/dL. Apoprotein A-I and B levels followed the same trends as HDL cholesterol and LDL cholesterol levels, respectively. Lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)] levels were twice as high in blacks as in whites, and women's Lp(a) levels were higher than men's Lp(a) levels for each race. Menopause was associated with elevated total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, apoprotein B, and Lp(a) levels, and hormone replacement medication use in postmenopausal subjects was associated with higher HDL cholesterol, triglyceride, and apoprotein A-I levels and lower LDL cholesterol, apoprotein B, and Lp(a) levels.