Staging of hilar cholangiocarcinoma by ultrasound and duplex sonography: A comparison with angiography and operative findings
Adenoma, Bile Duct
Bile Duct Neoplasms
The pre-operative radiological assessment of proximal bile duct tumours is clinically important as resection may be limited by tumour extension along the bile ducts, into hepatic parenchyma or the adjacent vascular structures. Demonstration of the extent of biliary and vascular involvement can direct additional investigations and definitive treatment. 22 patients with hilar cholangiocarcinoma were studied pre-operatively by conventional ultrasound (US) and duplex sonography (DS). The extent of tumour infiltration and vascular involvement was compared with arteriography and operative findings. Bile duct dilatation and the level of obstruction was documented by US in 22 (100%), and the tumour was shown by US in 19 (86%). In these 19 patients, the extent of extraductal extension compared with operative findings was correct in 13, underestimated in two, and in four infiltration was massed. Vascular patency or involvement was correctly determined by DS in 19 (86%), and by arteriography in 18 (82%). In two of the three incorrect DS interpretations, lobar atrophy and contralateral hypertrophy distorted the hilar anatomy. US with DS is valuable in the pre-operative staging of proximal bile duct tumours in predicting ductal and vascular involvement.