In vivo sodium chemical shift imaging
Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy
The shift reagents thulium(III) 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane N,N',N",N"'tetramethylenephosphonate (TmDOTP5-), and dysprosium(III)triethylenetetramine-hexaacetate (DyTTHA3-) are compared in this work for their uses in sodium chemical shift imaging (NaCSI). In a series of experiments using phantoms we evaluated the relative contributions of bulk magnetic susceptibility (BMS) effects and hyperfine shifts to the induced 23Na chemical shift for these two shift reagents. The ratios of BMS effects to hyperfine shifts suggest that TmDOTP5- should be a more effective shift reagent than DyTTHA3- for 23Na NMR spectroscopy as well as NaCSI. The dependence on pH and free Ca2+ concentration of the 23Na NMR frequency shift induced by TmDOTP5- was evaluated. It was found that TmDOTP5- produces good spectral resolution under physiologic conditions. Examples presented from in vivo NaCSI experiments using TmDOTP5- to study diffusion in the posterior chamber of the rabbit eye and to monitor the rate of clearance of aqueous fluid from the anterior chamber demonstrate the effectiveness of this new shift reagent and of the NaCSI technique for in vivo studies.