Effect of head elevation on intracranial pressure, cerebral perfusion pressure, and cerebral blood flow in head-injured patients
The traditional practice of elevating the head in order to lower intracranial pressure (ICP) in head-injured patients has been challenged in recent years. Some investigators argue that patients with intracranial hypertension should be placed in a horizontal position, the rationale being that this will increase the cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP) and thereby improve cerebral blood flow (CBF). However, ICP is generally significantly higher when the patient is in the horizontal position. This study was undertaken to clarify the issue of optimal head position in the care of head-injured patients. The effect of 0 degree and 30 degrees head elevation on ICP, CPP, CBF, mean carotid pressure, and other cerebral and systemic physiological parameters was studied in 22 head-injured patients. The mean carotid pressure was significantly lower when the patient's head was elevated at 30 degrees than at 0 degrees (84.3 +/- 14.5 mm Hg vs. 89.5 +/- 14.6 mm Hg), as was the mean ICP (14.1 +/- 6.7 mm Hg vs. 19.7 +/- 8.3 mm Hg). There was no statistically significant change in CPP, CBF, cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen, arteriovenous difference of lactate, or cerebrovascular resistance associated with the change in head position. The data indicate that head elevation to 30 degrees significantly reduced ICP in the majority of the 22 patients without reducing CPP or CBF.