Characterization of auscultatory gaps with wideband external pulse recording
Blood Pressure Determination
Three types of auscultatory gaps, called G1, G2, and G3, that occur during blood pressure measurement have been identified by using wideband external pulse recording. We have previously shown that the wideband external pulse recorded during cuff deflation can be separated into three components (K1, K2, and K3), one of which (K2) is closely related to the Korotkoff sound. G1 occurs with cuff pressure just below systolic and is characterized by the presence of K1 and K2 with intermittent disappearance of K2. G1 gaps are related to a phasic decrease of arterial (systolic) pressure and were exhibited by 13 of 60 hypertensive patients. G2 gaps are related to a phasic increase of arterial (diastolic) pressure, occur when cuff pressure is just above diastolic, and are characterized by the presence of K1, K2, and K3 with intermittent disappearance of K2. Seven of 60 hypertensive patients exhibited a G2 gap. G3 gaps occur with cuff pressure between systolic and diastolic and are characterized by an underdeveloped or blunted K2 signal. Three of 60 hypertensive patients exhibited a G3 gap. The identification of auscultatory gaps in relation to the wideband external pulse provides a qualitative measure of their existence, can be of significant value in better understanding aspects of the auscultatory blood pressure measurement technique, and provides an objective basis with which to better understand the mechanisms that cause them.