Engineering the chloroplast genome: Techniques and capabilities for chloroplast transformation in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii
B-Cell Activating Factor
Graft vs Host Disease
Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide
Chloroplast transformation of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii has been accomplished by agitating cell wall-deficient cells in the presence of glass beads and DNA. By using the atpB gene as the selected marker and cells grown in 0.5 mM 5-fluorodeoxyuridine, we have recovered up to 50 transformants per microgram of DNA. This method is easy and does not require specialized equipment, although it is not as efficient as the tungsten particle bombardment method [Boynton, J. E., Gillham, N. W., Harris, E. H., Hosler, J. P., Johnson, A. M., Jones, A. R., Randolph-Anderson, B. L., Robertson, D., Klein, T. M., Shark, K. B. & Sanford, J. C. (1988) Science 240, 1534-1537]. By using particle bombardment, we have developed a cotransformation approach in which spectinomycin-resistant 16S rRNA-encoding DNA is the selected marker, and we have demonstrated that cotransformation of an unselected marker on an independent replicon is very efficient. We have used this strategy (i) to recover transformants with partially deleted atpB genes that could not otherwise have been selected since they did not restore photosynthetic capability to a recipient carrying a more extensive atpB deletion and (ii) to generate specific deletion mutations in a wild-type recipient. This methodology should allow the introduction of any desired change into the chloroplast genome, even in the absence of phenotypic selection, and thus a detailed functional analysis of any chloroplast DNA sequence should be possible.