A phase I trial of monoclonal antibody M195 in acute myelogenous leukemia: Specific bone marrow targeting and internalization of radionuclide
Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute
Ten patients with myeloid leukemias were treated in a phase I trial with escalating doses of mouse monoclonal antibody (mAb) M195, reactive with CD33, a glycoprotein found on myeloid leukemia blasts and early hematopoietic progenitor cells but not on normal stem cells. M195 was trace-labeled with iodine-131 (131I) to allow detailed pharmacokinetic and dosimetric studies by serial sampling of blood and bone marrow and whole-body gamma-camera imaging. Total doses up to 76 mg were administered safely without immediate adverse effects. Absorption of M195 onto targets in vivo was demonstrated by biopsy, pharmacology, flow cytometry, and imaging; saturation of available sites occurred at doses greater than or equal to 5 mg/m2. The entire bone marrow was specifically and clearly imaged beginning within hours after injection; optimal imaging occurred at the lowest dose. Bone marrow biopsies demonstrated significant dose-related uptake of M195 as early as 1 hour after infusion in all patients, with the majority of the dose found in the marrow. Tumor regressions were not observed. An estimated 0.33 to 1.0 rad/mCi 131I was delivered to the whole body, 1.1 to 6.1 rad/mCi was delivered to the plasma, and up to 34 rad/mCi was delivered to the red marrow compartment. 131I-M195 was rapidly modulated, with a majority of the bound immunoglobulin G (IgG) being internalized into target cells in vivo. These data indicate that whole bone marrow ablative doses of 131I-M195 can be expected. The rapid, specific, and quantitative delivery to the bone marrow and the efficient internalization of M195 into target cells in vivo also suggest that the delivery of other isotopes such as auger or alpha emitters, toxins, or other biologically important molecules into either leukemia cells or normal hematopoietic progenitor cells may be feasible.