IL-8 in septic shock, endotoxemia, and after IL-1 administration
Much effort has been directed toward elucidating the host response to sepsis and inflammation, resulting in the definition of a cascade of endogenous mediators that direct metabolic and immunological responses. Here we report that IL-8, a novel cytokine produced by a variety of cells in vitro in response to stimulation with bacterial LPS and the proinflammatory cytokines, appears in the circulation of primates in vivo during septic shock, sublethal endotoxemia, and after the administration of IL-1 alpha. The magnitude of the IL-8 response correlates with the severity of the insult, and levels of IL-8 peak relatively late, after those of TNF-alpha and IL-1 beta, and simultaneously with those of IL-6. IL-8 has been primarily defined as a selective activator and chemoattractant of neutrophils, and we demonstrate that after LPS or IL-1 alpha infusion, circulating neutrophil numbers rapidly recover from an initial neutropenia while IL-8 concentrations are maximal, supporting the hypothesis that IL-8 influences circulating leukocyte populations in vivo. We conclude that IL-8 is another participant in the cytokine cascade elicited by sepsis and inflammation and, as such, may play a significant role in host defense and disease.