Individual differences in tumour necrosis factor and interleukin-1 production induced by viable and heat-killed Candida albicans
Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha
The in vitro production of tumour necrosis factor (TNF) and interleukin-1 (IL-1) by peripheral blood mononuclear cells from 27 healthy women in response to viable and heat-killed Candida albicans was measured. Production of both cytokines was proportional to the concentration of viable C. albicans and increased at a steady rate for at least 24 h. No relationship was observed between the levels of IL-1 and TNF produced by the mononuclear cells from any individual. Some women were high TNF producers and low IL-1 producers or vice versa. Higher levels of TNF were induced by heat-killed C. albicans than by viable organisms in 26 of the 27 subjects. In marked contrast, IL-1 was induced preferentially by viable C. albicans in 23 of the 27 women. Thus, TNF and IL-1 production induced by C. albicans appears to be non-coordinately regulated and may involve different Candida moieties.