The role of ifosfamide plus cisplatin‐based chemotherapy as salvage therapy for patients with refractory germ cell tumors
Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental
A prospective study of four cycles of etoposide with ifosfamide and cisplatin (VIP) chemotherapy was conducted in 42 germ cell tumor (GCT) patients who were refractory to cisplatin with etoposide/vinblastine-based therapy. Forty patients were evaluable for response. Ten patients (25%) had a complete response: seven to chemotherapy alone and an additional three patients after surgical resection of viable GCT. With a median follow-up of 15 months, four complete responders relapsed, and six patients (15%) remain in remission. Hematologic and nephrotoxicity were moderately severe. Durable complete responses with VIP as second salvage were achieved and suggests that ifosfamide adds efficacy to standard first-salvage therapy. The observed nephrotoxicity and myelotoxicity are considerations in the design of ifosfamide-cisplatin-based regimens. Hematopoietic growth factors may be useful in ameliorating myelotoxicity. The early use of ifosfamide-based chemotherapy may reduce the nephrotoxicity exacerbated by prior cisplatin. A trial of VIP as first salvage after a relapse from a complete response to platinum-based induction therapy is warranted. The modest proportion of patients who achieve a durable remission to VIP as second salvage emphasizes the need for more efficacious salvage therapy for patients who do not achieve a durable complete response.