Physiologic 1,2-diacylglycerol levels induce protein kinase C-independent translocation of a regulatory enzyme
Protein Kinase C
Phorbol esters and 1,2-diacylglycerols have been used interchangeably to study protein kinase C action. This laboratory first suggested that 1,2-diacylglycerols may also act independent of protein kinase C using protein kinase C-"down-modulated" cells (Kolesnick, R. N., and Paley, A. E. (1987) J. Biol. Chem. 262, 9204-9210). Unfortunately, down-modulation was never complete. The present studies establish an in vitro system of enzyme translocation to resolve this issue. Choline phosphate cytidylyltransferase (EC 18.104.22.168), the regulatory enzyme for phosphatidylcholine biosynthesis, was utilized. Cytidylyltransferase translocation from cytosol to membranes mediates phorbol ester-induced phosphatidylcholine synthesis in GH3 pituitary cells. In the present studies, 1,2-diacylglycerols similarly induced phosphatidylcholine synthesis and cytidylyltransferase translocation. 1,2-Diacylglycerol-induced phosphatidylcholine synthesis, however, was not concentration-dependent but proportional to the moles of 1,2-diacylglycerol added per cell, i.e. subject to surface dilution. For instance, at constant cell number (1.67 x 10(6)/sample) and 1,2-dioctanoylglycerol concentration (diC8; 20 micrograms/ml), 32Pi incorporation into phosphatidylcholine varied from 150 to 350% above control as the incubation volume increased from 0.3 to 1.2 ml. Hence, the effective diC8 concentrations 0.5-30 micrograms/ml are preferably referred to as doses and reported as 0.25-15 nmol/10(6) cells. These doses increased cellular 1,2-diacylglycerol levels within a few fold of basal (374 pmol/10(6) cells). In vitro, diC8 also induced translocation of purified cytidylyltransferase devoid of protein kinase C to microsomes. Translocation was again subject to surface dilution. Translocation occurred with the same ratio of diC8 to microsomal membrane as phosphatidylcholine synthesis in intact cells (1-10 nmol of diC8/10(6) cell membranes). Despite stimulating cytidylyltransferase translocation in intact cells, phorbol esters failed to stimulate translocation in vitro. Hence, 1,2-diacylglycerols are not always interchangeable with phorbol esters and at physiologic levels may stimulate enzyme translocation by an alternative mechanism to protein kinase C.