Genetics of hypertension: What we know and don't know
Genome-Wide Association Study
Human arterial hypertension is likely a multifactorial trait resulting from multiple measurable monogenes, blended polygenes, shared family environment, and individual environment. Familial aggregation of hypertension and familial correlation of blood pressure appears to be more due to genes than to shared family environment. Total genetic heritability of 80% with some recessive major gene effects have been found for several traits associated with hypertension including urinary kallikrein excretion, intraerythrocytic sodium, and sodium-lithium countertransport. Other interesting factors regarding hypertension genetics include: non-modulation of the renin angiotensin system, intralymphocytic sodium, ionized calcium, and several genetic markers such as haptoglobin, HLA, and MNS blood type. Probably the most clinically useful information regarding the genetics of hypertension is evolving in several studies reporting a strong association of hypertension with dyslipidemia, diabetes, and obesity.