Increased plasma atrial natriuretic factor and reduced plasma renin in patients with poorly controlled diabetes mellitus.
Atrial Natriuretic Factor
1. To investigate atrial natriuretic factor (ANF) and its relationship to the renin system in diabetes, we measured plasma immunoreactive ANF and plasma renin activity (PRA) in 27 non-ketotic diabetic patients without evidence of cardiac or overt renal disease, and compared them with 26 age- and sex-matched normal subjects. 2. Diabetic patients were divided prospectively into poor (PGC, n = 14) or moderate (MGC, n = 13) glycaemic control depending on their concurrent plasma glycohaemoglobin (HbA1) levels (greater than 9% or less than 9%, respectively). Plasma ANF was elevated in PGC diabetic patients (15.7 +/- 1.8 fmol/ml, mean +/- SEM) compared with MGC diabetics (9.9 +/- 0.8 fmol/ml, P less than 0.001) and normal subjects (10.1 +/- 1.3 fmol/ml, P less than 0.05). 3. In contrast, PRA was lower in the PGC diabetic patients (1.3 +/- 0.3 pmol of angiotensin 1 h-1 ml-1) compared with the other groups (2.5 +/- 0.5 and 2.1 +/- 0.2 pmol of angiotensin I h-1 ml-1, P less than 0.05). Diabetic groups had proportionally more patients with high prorenin values (over 30 ng h-1 ml-1) than the normal group, but there was no difference between the diabetic groups. 4. Among the diabetic patients, ANF was directly related to HbA1 (r = 0.49, P less than 0.005) and urinary albumin excretion (r = 0.40, P less than 0.02), and was inversely related to PRA (r = 0.36, P less than 0.04) and plasma creatinine (r = -0.42, P less than 0.02).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)