Assessment of regional myocardial perfusion by contrast echocardiography. II. Detection of changes in transmural and subendocardial perfusion during dipyridamole-induced hyperemia in a model of critical coronary stenosis
Coronary Artery Disease
Peripheral Arterial Disease
Measurements of myocardial contrast (sonicated meglumine diatrizoate) intensity were compared with myocardial flow by radioactive microspheres before and after administration of dipyridamole (0.5 mg/kg body weight intravenously) in 10 open chest dogs with a critical stenosis in the left circumflex coronary artery. Computer measurements of contrast time-intensity curves corrected for background myocardial intensity were made along 12 transmural segments of the left ventricle at mid-papillary level and for the subendocardial and subepicardial half of each segment. After administration of dipyridamole, transmural flow in the control region increased significantly (p less than 0.001), resulting in a dipyridamole/baseline flow ratio (i.e., coronary reserve ratio) of 2.54 +/- 0.95. Similar changes (p less than 0.001) were seen by contrast echocardiography; the coronary reserve ratio was 2.10 +/- 0.60 with use of peak intensity and 3.48 +/- 1.58 with use of area under the time-intensity curve. In contrast, no significant changes were observed in myocardial flow, peak contrast intensity or area under the curve in the ischemic region after dipyridamole. In the control region the ratio of subendocardial to subepicardial flow was similar at baseline and after dipyridamole administration as assessed by microspheres (1.08 +/- 0.24 versus 1.17 +/- 0.25) or by area under the time-intensity curve (1.11 +/- 0.45 versus 1.11 +/- 0.56). In the ischemic region, the subendocardial/subepicardial flow ratio decreased significantly after dipyridamole administration as measured by microspheres (1.15 +/- 0.19 to 0.82 +/- 0.25; p less than 0.001) or by area under the curve (1.10 +/- 0.28 to 0.70 +/- 0.47; p less than 0.01). Thus, myocardial contrast echocardiography appears to be a sensitive technique with which to detect changes in myocardial flow induced by dipyridamole in the various myocardial layers of normal segments as well as of segments supplied by a critically stenotic coronary artery.