Surgical treatment of right atrial focal tachycardia in adults
Heart Valve Prosthesis Implantation
Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Cine
Mitral Valve Insufficiency
Although successful operative treatment of atrial focal tachycardia has been reported in children, there are only isolated reports of surgical treatment of this arrhythmia in adults. In this case series of eight patients (aged 10 to 53 years) with drug-resistant right atrial focal tachycardia, results of electrophysiologic studies, surgical techniques and long-term follow-up are described. Atrial focal tachycardia was reproduced during electrophysiologic study, and endocardial mapping localized the earliest onset of atrial activation in the right atrium in all patients. Epicardial mapping confirmed the location of atrial tachycardia foci in seven of eight patients whose tachycardia was inducible intraoperatively. Of four patients treated with epicardial cryoablation alone, two had recurrent tachycardia and required a second procedure. None have had arrhythmia recurrence. In all four patients after right atrial excision (two of whom had intraoperative recurrence of atrial focal tachycardia after epicardial cryoablation alone), there has been no recurrence during a clinical follow-up period of 11 to 67 months (mean 30). It is concluded that in adult patients 1) electrophysiologic study with endocardial and epicardial mapping permits successful surgical treatment of atrial focal tachycardia; 2) epicardial cryoablation alone may be associated with recurrence of atrial focal tachycardia either intraoperatively or postoperatively; and 3) subtotal right atrial resection appears to be a well tolerated procedure with no long-term recurrence of atrial focal tachycardia.