Successful treatment of pure endodermal sinus tumors in adult men
Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols
Seven adult men with pure endodermal sinus tumors (EST) were treated with cyclical combination chemotherapy Cytoxan (cyclophosphamide; Bristol-Myers Company, Evansville, IL), Adriamycin (doxorubicin; Adria Laboratories, Columbus, OH), and cisplatin/vinblastine and bleomycin (CISCAII/VBIV) and surgery at the University of Texas M.D. Anderson Hospital and Tumor Institute at Houston from 1978 through 1985. Six tumors were of extragonadal origin (four anterior mediastinum, one pelvic, one prostate), and one was of gonadal origin with retroperitoneal metastasis. All patients presented with advanced local disease and a relative absence of distant metastasis. Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) levels were elevated in six patients (median, 4,400 ng/mL; range, 2,580 to 31,200 ng/mL). Six patients achieved a complete remission (CR): one with chemotherapy alone, one with initial surgery followed by chemotherapy, and four with chemotherapy followed by consolidative surgery. The remaining patient died of progressive disease. Of the six patients who achieved a CR, five are alive with no evidence of disease (+17, +23, +34, +43, +59 months); one patient developed recurrent disease at 6 months after completion of therapy and is currently undergoing salvage chemotherapy. Of the four patients who underwent postchemotherapy surgery, three were operated on for a marker-negative stable mass; in these patients, no viable tumor was found at pathologic review. The remaining patient underwent surgery for a stable mass with a persistent elevation in AFP levels. He was found to have 95% necrosis with 5% viable tumor and remains disease free without further therapy. The observed changes in AFP levels correlated with regression and progression of tumor; a normal AFP was consistent with a CR, and elevation was consistent with residual tumor. These seven patients demonstrate that when adult men with EST are treated aggressively with combination chemotherapy and surgery, high cure rates can be achieved.