Relation of left ventricular dilation during acute myocardial infarction to systolic performance, diastolic dysfunction, infarct size and location
The quantification of left ventricular (LV) volumes and assessment of their relation to systolic and diastolic dysfunction, infarct size and anatomic location were performed in 54 patients with a first acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Blood pool radionuclide angiography was used to assess LV end-diastolic, end-systolic, and stroke volume indexes, ejection fraction and peak diastolic filling rate. Infarct size was estimated from plasma MB creatine kinase activity. Substantial LV dilation occurred within the initial 24 hours of AMI. The peak diastolic filling rate was low, even in those patients with a normal ejection fraction. In comparison with inferior AMI (n = 25), patients with anterior AMI (n = 29) had a larger end-diastolic volume index (105 +/- 8 vs 81 +/- 4 ml/m2, p less than 0.01) and end-systolic volume index (64 +/- 7 vs 37 +/- 4 ml/m2, p less than 0.001), but similar stroke volume index (41 +/- 3 vs 43 +/- 2 ml/m2, difference not significant). No significant relation was noted between infarct size estimated by MB creatine kinase and any volumetric index. On repeat study (day 10 after AMI), end-diastolic and end-systolic volume indexes increased further (p less than 0.05 vs day 1) but ejection fraction and peak diastolic filling rate were unchanged. It was concluded that: (1) LV dilation occurs within hours of AMI in both inferior and anterior AMI, but is more marked in the latter; (2) significant LV diastolic dysfunction is the rule, even in patients with preserved LV systolic function; and (3) LV dilation is an early compensatory mechanism that maintains normal stroke volume, even in patients with severely reduced LV function.