Comparison of mitral valve dimensions and motion in mitral valve prolapse with severe mitral regurgitation to uncomplicated mitral valve prolapse and to mitral regurgitation without mitral valve prolapse
To determine the mitral valve abnormalities associated with hemodynamically important mitral regurgitation (MR) among patients with mitral valve prolapse (MVP), computerized 2-dimensional echocardiographic measurements of mitral leaflet and anular dimensions and motion in 26 patients with MVP and MR were compared to those in 48 subjects with uncomplicated MVP, 16 patients with MR due to etiologies other than MVP (rheumatic in 8) and 35 normal adults. Compared to both uncomplicated MVP and normal subjects, patients with MVP plus MR were older (p less than 0.05), had strikingly large mitral leaflets and anulus (p less than 0.0005) and were more likely to have systolic billowing of mitral leaflets in the parasternal long-axis view (24 of 26 [92%] vs 24 of 48 subjects with uncomplicated MVP [50%], p less than 0.001). Overlap in anular and posterior leaflet dimensions in normal and uncomplicated MVP subjects occurred in the 20 MVP plus MR patients who continue to be followed medically but not in the 6 MVP plus MR patients who underwent mitral valve surgery during 22 +/- 14 months follow-up. Patients with MR due to rheumatic or other non-MVP etiologies had enlargement of mitral leaflets and anulus virtually identical to that in MVP plus MR patients. In conclusion, patients with severe MR due to MVP are older, have striking mitral valve enlargement and more frequently exhibit leaflet billowing compared with subjects with uncomplicated MVP. Similar mitral leaflet enlargement was found in patients with non-MVP etiologies of MR, suggesting that mitral anular and leaflet enlargement may play a more general role in the pathogenesis of MR than is currently appreciated.