Characterization of the M1(Ala213) type of alpha 1-antitrypsin, a newly recognized, common "normal" alpha 1-antitrypsin haplotype.
Amino Acid Sequence
Polymorphism, Restriction Fragment Length
alpha 1-Antitrypsin (alpha 1AT) is a highly pleomorphic 52-kDa serum glycoprotein that functions as the major inhibitor of neutrophil elastase. Of these, the most common normal alpha 1AT haplotypes identified by isoelectric focusing (IEF) of serum are those of the M family, including M1, M2, and M3. In the course of studying the alpha 1AT type Z gene, we identified a restriction endonuclease BstEII polymorphism in the M1 gene that predicted the existence of a previously unidentified, but relatively common, haplotype of M, referred to as M1(Ala213) [Nukiwa, T., Satoh, K., Brantly, M. L., Ogushi, F., Fells, G. A., Courtney, M., & Crystal, R. G. (1986) J. Biol. Chem. 261, 15989-15994]. In this study we have cloned both alpha 1AT genes from an individual heterozygous for the M1(Ala213) and M1(Val213) haplotypes. Sequencing of the coding exons of both demonstrated that they are identical except for the Ala-Val difference at residue 213. The codominant transmission of the M1(Ala213) gene was demonstrated in a family study. Evaluation of 39 genomic samples of Caucasians with the IEF haplotype M1 demonstrated haplotype frequencies of 68% for M1(Val213) and 32% for M1(Ala213). alpha 1AT serum levels of individuals inheriting the M1(Ala213) gene in a homozygous fashion were in the same range as those for homozygous M1(Val213) as was the rate of association of the M1(Ala213) protein with neutrophil elastase.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)