Ganglioside G(D2) specific monoclonal antibody 3F8: A phase I study in patients with neuroblastoma and malignant melanoma
The murine IgG3 monoclonal antibody (MoAb) 3F8, specific for the ganglioside GD2, activates human complement, is active in antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC), and can target specifically to human neuroblastoma in patients with metastatic disease. In a phase I study, 3F8 was administered intravenously (IV) to 17 patients with metastatic GD2 positive neuroblastoma or malignant melanoma at doses of 5, 20, 50, and 100 mg/m2. Serum 3F8 levels achieved were proportional to the dose of 3F8 infused. However, serum antimouse antibody levels did not increase with the amount of 3F8 administered. Toxicities included pain, hypertension, urticaria, and complement depletion. All acute side effects were controllable with symptomatic therapy. No long-term side effects were detected in patients observed for more than 14 months. None of the 17 patients received any antitumor therapy postantibody treatment. Antitumor responses occurred in seven of 17 patients. These ranged from complete clinical remissions to mixed responses. The murine monoclonal antibody (MoAb) 3F8 has clinical utility for the diagnosis and therapy of neuroblastoma and melanoma.