Allogeneic bone marrow transplantation after hyperfractionated total-body irradiation and cyclophosphamide in children with acute leukemia
Bone Marrow Transplantation
Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute
Ninety-seven children with either acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) or acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) received HLA-identical bone marrow transplants from sibling donors, after preparation with 1320 cGy of hyperfractionated total-body irradiation and high-dose cyclophosphamide. Kaplan-Meier product-limit estimates (means +/- SE) of disease-free survival at five years among patients with ALL in second remission, third remission, and fourth remission or relapse were 64 +/- 9, 42 +/- 14, and 23 +/- 11 percent, respectively, with probabilities of relapse of 13 +/- 7, 25 +/- 13, and 64 +/- 16 percent. Among patients with AML in first remission, second remission, and third remission or relapse, five-year disease-free survival estimates were 66 +/- 10, 75 +/- 15, and 33 +/- 19 percent, with respective relapse probabilities of 0, 13 +/- 12, and 67 +/- 19 percent. The most frequent cause of death in patients in early remission (ALL in second or third remission or AML in first or second remission) was bacterial sepsis, fungal sepsis, or both, most often in the presence of acute or chronic graft-versus-host disease. Among patients with ALL who received transplants while in second remission, the duration of the initial remission had no effect on the probability of relapse after transplantation. The only pretransplantation factor that significantly affected outcome was the disease status at the time of transplantation; patients in early remission had better disease-free survival. We conclude that transplantation after preparation with hyperfractionated total-body irradiation and cyclophosphamide is an effective mode of therapy in children with refractory forms of acute leukemia.