Primary chemotherapy for clinical stage II nonseminomatous germ cell tumors of the testis: A follow-up of 50 patients
Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols
Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal
Fifty patients with clinical stage II nonseminomatous germ cell tumor of the testis (NSGCTT) were treated with primary chemotherapy followed by a retroperitoneal lymph node dissection (RPLND) in selected patients. The study population included 34 patients with retroperitoneal masses and elevated levels of serum biomarkers (alpha-fetoprotein [AFP] and beta-human chorionic gonadotropin [BHCG] ), five with needle aspiration biopsy-proven retroperitoneal metastases but normal levels of biomarkers, and 11 in whom there were rising levels of serum biomarkers but no radiographic evidence of retroperitoneal metastases. Forty-eight patients (96%) achieved a complete response (CR), with a mean disease-free survival of 132 weeks (range, 55 to 273 weeks). Two patients developed recurrent disease. One died and one achieved a second CR with further therapy (48 + weeks). Postchemotherapy RPLND was required in 11 patients (22%). Patients with embryonal carcinoma had a lower frequency of RPLND (8%) than patients with teratomatous elements in their primary tumor [36%, P = .014]. To reduce the frequency of double therapy (surgery +/- chemotherapy), we propose individualized therapy. Patients presenting with clinical stage II embryonal carcinoma of the testis should receive primary chemotherapy. Patients with clinical stage II NSGCTT and teratomatous elements in their primary tumor continue to require an RPLND. Those patients with intermediate volume disease (greater than 2 cm less than or equal to 5 cm in maximum diameter) may be treated with an RPLND only. Patients with higher volume teratomatous elements (greater than 5 cm less than or equal to 10 cm in maximum diameter) are likely to require the combination of chemotherapy and surgery.