Phase I-II study of eflornithine and mitoguazone combined in the treatment of recurrent primary brain tumors
Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols
Eflornithine (DFMO), an irreversible inhibitor of ornithine decarboxylase, and mitoguazone (MGBG), a competitive inhibitor of S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase, were evaluated in a phase I-II study for patients with primary recurrent malignant brain tumors. All patients had failed prior radiation therapy and most had also failed prior chemotherapy. Two dose schedules were used, with the second schedule (Group II) a modification of the first schedule (Group I). The Group II schedule, with different dose levels, was better tolerated than the Group I schedule. Gastrointestinal and myelotoxicity were dose-limiting in most patients, and tinnitus was dose-limiting in two patients. Nineteen of 33 evaluable patients had anaplastic gliomas, in whom response was observed in 21%, stable disease in 53%, and immediate progression after one course of therapy in 26%. Of six patients with glioblastoma multiforme, two had brief stabilization of disease. An additional patient with brainstem glioma and ependymoma also had disease stabilization. Four patients with medulloblastoma, a spinal cord mixed glioma, and one with oligodendroglioma failed DFMO-MGBG. Based on this study, we believe that a combination of DFMO and MGBG is well-tolerated and deserves further evaluation for patients with anaplastic gliomas, particularly those that appear to be biologically slow growing.