Synthesis and calcium channel antagonist activity of dialkyl 1,4-dihydro-2,6-dimethyl-4-(pyridinyl)-3,5-pyridinedicarboxylates
Calcium Channel Blockers
The Hantzsch condensation of alkyl acetoacetates 3 with methyl 3-aminocrotonate (4) and pyridinecarboxaldehydes 5 afforded the unsymmetrical alkyl methyl 1,4-dihydro-2,6-dimethyl-4-(pyridinyl)-3,5-pyridinedicarboxylates 6, whereas condensation of 3 with 5 and ammonium hydroxide gave the symmetrical dialkyl 1,4-dihydro-2,6-dimethyl-4-(pyridinyl)-3,5-pyridinedicarboxylates 7. The calcium channel antagonist activities of disubstituted 1,4-dihydro-3,5-pyridinedicarboxylates 6,7, and 9 were determined with use of the muscarinic-receptor-mediated Ca2+-dependent contraction of guinea pig ileal longitudinal smooth muscle. The relative potency order for isomeric pyridinyl analogues 6 and 7 was 2-pyridinyl greater than 3-pyridinyl greater than 4-pyridinyl. Increasing the size of the alkyl ester substituents enhanced activity. Compounds having nonidentical ester substituents were more potent than those having identical ester substituents. Replacement of the C-3 and/or C-5 ester substituent(s) by a cyano substituent(s) decreased activity significantly. An approximate 1:1 correlation between the IC50 value for inhibition of [3H]nitrendipine binding and inhibition of the tonic component of the muscarinic-induced contractile response was observed. The test results suggest that a 4-(pyridinyl) substituent is bioisosteric with a 4-(nitrophenyl) substituent on a 1,4-dihydropyridine ring system where o-, m-, and p-nitrophenyl are bioisosteric with 2-pyridinyl, 3-pyridinyl, and 4-pyridinyl, respectively.