Normal brain iodine-125 radiation damage: Effect of dose and irradiated volume in a canine model
High-activity iodine-125 sources in plastic catheters were surgically placed in the cerebral white matter of healthy beagle dogs and later removed. Reference doses, calculated at a point 0.75 mm from the source, ranged from 10 to 40 Gy. Necrosis, vascular-related damage, and edema were quantified by computed tomography. Volumetric analyses were used to derive the relationship of dose and dose rate to necrosis and contrast enhancement. The extent of necrosis was related to irradiated volume; a minimum effective dose averaging 180-200 Gy was required to induce this type of damage. Contrast enhancement was less dependent on irradiated volume or total dose. The extent of radiation-induced edema was directly related to the volumes of necrosis plus contrast enhancement. Noninvasive serial studies in a well-characterized in vivo model can address specific clinically related questions on damage to normal tissue after interstitial irradiation.