Detection of neuroblastoma cells in bone marrow using G(D2) specific monoclonal antibodies
Three murine monoclonal antibodies (Mab) against a cell surface antigen, the disialoganglioside GD2, were investigated for detecting bone marrow metastasis in patients with neuroblastoma (NB) by indirect immunofluorescence (IF). As few as 0.01% NB cells could be detected. No Mab reactivity was found in 60 non-NB marrows. Thirty-five marrows from patients with stage III and stage IV NB at diagnosis were examined during the course of their disease. Tumor involvement was found in 74% by Mab, 55% by the two-layer soft agar clonogenic assay (CA), and 27% by conventional histochemical stains. All marrows containing NB histologically were positive for tumor by Mab; 71% were also positive by CA. Of histologically negative marrows, 63% were Mab positive, the majority (78%) of which were also positive by CA. All Mab nonreactive samples were negative histologically and by CA. We conclude that these antibodies are highly sensitive and specific in detecting NB metastasis in bone marrow.