Oxygen-independent inhibition of intracellular Chlamydia psittaci growth by human monocytes and interferon-γ-activated macrophages
We have demonstrated previously that Chlamydia psittaci grows well in human monocyte-derived macrophages, but to a limited extent in lymphokine-or interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma)-activated macrophages. In this investigation, freshly explanted human monocytes inhibited chlamydial inclusion formation by 85% as compared to macrophages, and the level of inhibition was similar to that exhibited by lymphokine-activated macrophages (79%). To determine whether the oxygen-dependent antimicrobial mechanisms of the mononuclear phagocyte were involved in the inhibition, cells were infected with C. psittaci in the presence of agents that either inhibit the respiratory burst (glucose deprivation) or diminish the effect of H2O2 (catalase). These treatments had no effect on the capacity of monocytes and lymphokine-activated macrophages to restrict chlamydial growth. In addition, monocytes and activated macrophages from an individual with chronic granulomatous disease suppressed chlamydial growth as effectively as normal cells. Oxidatively deficient HeLa and endothelial cells, once stimulated by lymphokine, also displayed normal levels of antichlamydial activity. The induction of this apparently oxygen-independent antichlamydial effect by lymphokine was completely neutralized by a monoclonal anti-IFN-gamma antibody, and could be achieved by treatment with recombinant (r)IFN-gamma alone. These results indicate that the primary antimicrobial mechanism of the human monocyte against C. psittaci is oxygen-independent, and that this response can be effectively stimulated in the macrophage by lymphokine (IFN-gamma).