Relation of hemoglobin A1 and blood glucose to cardiac function in diabetes mellitus
To examine the relation of short- and long-term changes in glucose metabolism to cardiac function, radionuclide cineangiography and echocardiography were performed in 10 young insulin-dependent diabetic patients without clinical evidence of heart disease. Cardiac assessments were performed before and after both acute variations in blood glucose, and induction of chronic "tight glucose control" involving normalization of hemoglobin A1 concentrations. In diabetic patients, left ventricular (LV) ejection fraction (EF) at normal blood glucose concentration was indistinguishable from values in 11 normal subjects. However, during hyperglycemia (about 300 mg/dl), the average EF at rest was 61%, significantly higher than that during normoglycemia (56%, p less than 0.001). No significant change in LV diastolic dimension was noted in association with shifts between high and normal blood glucose concentrations. Normalization of hemoglobin A1 was achieved within 6 to 25 weeks. This alteration had no significant effect on LVEF, mitral valve E-F slope, or the response of systolic function to blood glucose levels. In addition, no correlation was found between LVEF and hemoglobin A1 concentrations in 4 of 5 evaluation periods. Thus, in young insulin-dependent diabetic patients without overt heart disease, variation in blood glucose concentration is associated with small but significant variation in EF at rest; normalization of hemoglobin A1 has no significant effect on LVEF or the response of systolic function to blood glucose levels.