Effects of hyperthermia on DNA interstrand crosslinking after treatment with BCNU in 9L rat brain tumor cells
The effects of hyperthermia (42 degrees C) on 1,3-bis(2-chloroethyl)-1-nitrosourea (BCNU)-mediated DNA interstrand crosslink formation were investigated in 9L rat brain tumor cells using the technique of alkaline elution. When cells were treated with 60 microM BCNU for 1 hr at 37 degrees C and incubated for 6 hr in drug-free medium at 42 degrees C, there was a 50% increase in crosslinking; and when cells were treated at 42 degrees C and incubated at 37 degrees C, there was a 45% increase in crosslinking compared with the results for cells treated and incubated at 37 degrees C. When cells were treated and incubated at 42 degrees C, there was a 129% increase in DNA crosslinking. The same relative order of results was found for cell survival. These results suggest that hyperthermia can increase DNA interstrand crosslink formation and the consequent cell death through two independent mechanisms: an increase in the amount of initial alkylation because of the increased rate of hydrolysis of BCNU at higher temperatures, and the effect of heat on DNA structure that leads to an increase in the number of crosslinks formed.