Two types of somatostatin receptors differentiated by cyclic somatostatin analogs
Receptors, Cell Surface
Somatostatin receptors in rat brain, pituitary, and pancreas were labeled with two radioiodinated analogs of somatostatins 14 and 28. Two cyclic analogs of somatostatin, SMS201-995 and cyclo(Ala-Cys-Phe-D-Trp-Lys-Thr-Cys), showed biphasic displacement of binding to somatostatin receptors by these radioligands. In contrast, all other somatostatin analogs, including somatostatin-14, competed for the receptor sites with monophasic displacement of radioligand receptor binding. Thus two types of somatostatin receptors were identified. It was found that the pituitary and pancreas have predominantly one type of somatostatin receptor whereas the brain has both, and that different regions of the brain have various proportions of the two types. These findings suggest methods to characterize other types of somatostatin receptors subserving somatostatin's diverse physiological functions, including a potential role in cognitive function and extrapyramidal motor system control.