Biofeedback for neuromuscular disorders
Biofeedback has been applied to the treatment of numerous neuromuscular disorders. The most widely used method has incorporated the electromyogram (EMG) in muscle reeducation. This technique has been used to train patients with spinal cord and peripheral nerve injuries, cerebral palsy, muscular atrophy resulting from surgery or arthritis, hemiparesis resulting from head injury, Huntington's chorea, tremor, Parkinson's disease, and facial palsy. However, EMG feedback has been most widely used and tested in patients with a variety of disorders that follow cerebrovascular accidents and in patients with torsion dystonias, particularly spasmodic torticollis. Through the use of visual or auditory feedback that instantaneously reflects the electrical activity of targeted muscles, a patient can be trained to inhibit unwanted spastic motor activity and facilitate improved strength, range of motion, and control of paretic muscles.