Lipoprotein lipase is produced, regulated, and functional in rat brain
Lipoprotein lipase (LP lipase, triacylglycero-protein acylhydrolase EC 188.8.131.52) activity was found in four dissimilar brain regions (hypothalamus, cortex, cerebellum, and midbrain) of adult male rats. Progressive accumulation of LP lipase activity in cultured fetal rat hypothalamic cells was also observed, indicating de novo synthesis of the lipase. The brain LP lipase activity was serum-dependent and was inhibited by 1 M NaCl and by protamine sulfate. Kinetic analysis revealed an apparent Km of 0.79 mM very similar to that of rat adipose tissue LP lipase. That the lipase was functioning in the cultured brain cells was indicated by uptake and incorporation of radioactivity from tri[( 1-14C]oleoyl)glycerol into cellular triacylglycerols, and into more polar lipids, such as phosphatidylcholine. Furthermore, brain LP lipase activity in adult rats was decreased in all four regions examined, most significantly in the hypothalamus, after 72 hr of food deprivation. Thus, authentic LP lipase is present in adult rat brain and can be synthesized by isolated brain cells in vitro. LP lipase also mediates the uptake of triacylglycerol fatty acids and their subsequent incorporation into cellular lipids of cultured brain cells. Decreased brain LP lipase activity after fasting suggests that this enzyme may be regulated by metabolic or nutritional factors. Because the largest changes in LP lipase activity in response to food deprivation occurred in the hypothalamus, the enzyme may have a role in hypothalamic control of food intake or in body-weight regulation.