Leukemia following treatment of germ cell tumors in man
Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal
We investigated the incidence of leukemia occurring subsequent to the treatment of germ cell tumors in men at our institution over a 30-year interval and found four patients with acute nonlymphocytic leukemia (ANLL) and one patient with chronic myelomonocytic leukemia. The relative risk (observed/expected cases) estimates for the development of leukemia ranged from 13.7 (P = .0005) in the total population to 50.1 (P = .0001) in the group treated with cytotoxic agents alone. All three patients with ANLL treated with contemporary antileukemic therapy had complete responses, with survivals of 7, 29, and 133 + months. In a review of the literature, 14 additional cases of germ cell tumors were found in which the men subsequently developed leukemia. It is concluded that leukemia following germ cell tumors is increased in incidence and is likely to be treatment induced. Complete responses and long-term survival are possible in secondary leukemia and aggressive antileukemic therapy should be given.