Philadelphia chromosome and terminal transferase-positive acute leukemia: Similarity of terminal phase of chronic myelogenous leukemia and de novo acute presentation
Chromosomes, Human, 21-22 and Y
Twenty-eight patients with Philadelphia chromosome (Ph1)--positive and terminal transferase (TdT)--positive acute leukemia (AL) were treated with intensive chemotherapy used for adult acute lymphoblastic leukemia (L-10 and L-10M protocols). Fifteen patients had a documented chronic phase of Ph1-positive chronic myelogenous leukemia preceding the acute transformation (TdT + BLCML) while the remaining 13 patients did not (TdT + Ph1 + AL). An overall complete remission (CR) rate of 71% was obtained with a median survival of 13 months in the responders. Clinical presentation, laboratory data, cytogenetics, response to treatment, and survivals of the two groups of patients are compared. These results appear to be similar, suggesting a common or closely related origin. Since the overall survival of those receiving chemotherapy maintenance is poor, three patients underwent allogeneic bone marrow transplantation (BMT) from histocompatibility leukocyte antigen--matched siblings after they achieved CR. One of them is a long-term survivor (35 + months) with a Ph1-negative bone marrow. New techniques such as BMT should be considered in young patients with a histocompatibility leukocyte antigen--compatible sibling once a CR has been achieved.