Cardiac regression and blood pressure control in the Dahl rat treated with either enalapril maleate (MK 421, an angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor) or hydrochlorothiazide
Enalapril maleate (MK 421), and hydrochlorothiazide were used to evaluate the control of hypertension and reversal of myocardial hypertrophy in Dahl sensitive (DS) and Dahl resistant (DR) rats given either a high (8% NaCl) or a low salt (0.4% NaCl) diet. Groups of six-week-old male DS and DR rats were treated with enalapril (15-100 mg/kg/day) in drinking water for eight weeks. Additional comparable groups of DS and DR were also treated with hydrochlorothiazide (60-400 mg/kg/day). Systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), heart rate (HR) and heart weight/body weight (Hwt/Bwt) ratio were determined. We observed significant reduction in Hwt/Bwt ratio (P less than 0.001) along with control of SBP and DBP in the DS given a high salt diet treated with either enalapril or hydrochlorothiazide. However, in the DR given a high salt diet, cardiac regression (Hwt/Bwt ratio, P less than 0.05), SBP and DBP (P less than 0.01) reduction were seen only with enalapril. Similarly, cardiac regression (Hwt/Bwt ratio, P less than 0.05) was observed along with reduction of SBP and DBP (P less than 0.001) in the DS given a low salt diet and DR given enalapril. These data indicate that enalapril reduced SBP and DBP in association with cardiac regression in hypertensive and normotensive rats. In contrast, hydrochlorothiazide only reduced SBP, DBP and caused cardiac reversal (Hwt/Bwt ratio) in DS placed on a high salt diet.