Treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukemia in adults: Results of the L-10 and L-10M protocols
Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols
Two successive protocols (L-10 and L-10M) employing multidrug induction therapy with vincristine, prednisone, and doxorubicin (Adriamycin) plus an intensive consolidation phase and maintenance program have led to a significant improvement in the prognosis of adult acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). The complete remission (CR) rates for the 34 patients entered on the L-10 protocol and the 38 patients entered on the L-10M protocol were 85% and 84%, respectively. The median duration of remission has not yet been reached for either the L-10 (median follow-up, 5.5 years; range, 3.5-7.5 years) or the L-10M protocol (median follow-up, 2.5 years; range, 1-3.5 years). The median survival time has not yet been reached for the L-10M protocol. Central nervous system prophylaxis with intrathecal methotrexate alone was effective in preventing central nervous system relapse. An analysis of possible prognostic factors indicated that patients less than 25 years of age had a higher CR rate than older patients (p = 0.02). Patients with an initial leukocyte count below 15,000/microL experienced longer remissions than patients with a leukocyte count above 15,000/microL (p = 0.008), and patients who achieved CR within the first month of therapy were in remission longer than those requiring a longer time to achieve CR (p = 0.04). Patients with T cell ALL did not have a poorer prognosis than other patients treated on these protocols. The L-10 and L-10M protocols were well tolerated with minimal morbidity.