Tumor classification and size in germ‐cell testicular cancer. Influence on the occurrence of metastases
Quality of Health Care
The influence of local tumor spread (T-classification) and of tumor size on the occurrence of metastases was studied in 241 patients with testicular germ-cell neoplasms. All patients underwent thorough clinical or pathologic staging, or both, and were treated at the University of Minnesota Hospitals. Spread of tumor through the tunica vaginalis (T2) was associated with abdominal lymph node or distant metastases in eight of nine patients. Local tumor extension to the spermatic cord (T4a) was associated with metastatic spread in 29 of 31 men. Tumor size did not appear to correlate with metastatic rate. These findings are an important aid in designing adjuvant therapy trials and in establishing a "no treatment" approach after orchiectomy.