Cardiac changes with cyclophosphamide.
Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
Serial echocardiographic (ECHO) studies were obtained on 40 pediatric patients (pts) treated with greater than or equal to 80 mg/kg cyclophosphamide (CPM) (range 80-200 mg/kg) in 1 week. Patients were treated for solid tumors and prior to marrow transplant. Echo changes occurred in 10/13 pts who received CPM greater than or equal to 170 mg/kg over four days, and in 11/19 pts who received 120-140 mg/kg dose over two days and who had previously received greater than or equal to 100 mg/m2 anthracyclines with or without radiation. No changes were seen in eight pts who had 80-160 mg/kg CPM and less than 100 mg/m2 anthracyclines. The observed changes occurred approximately 1 week after CPM and persisted for days to weeks. Pericardial effusion seen in 15 pts was successfully treated with furosemide in 13. Two died with hemorrhagic pancarditis. Other changes seen were increased end diastolic left ventricular diameter, decreased fractional shortening and abnormal left ventricular preejection period/ejection time ratios. Thus, cardiac effects of high dose CPM are not rare in children. Patients receiving greater than 170 mg/kg CPM in 1 week or 120 mg/kg in 1 week after greater than or equal to 100 mg/m2 anthracyclines are at particular risk.