Acute myeloblastic leukemia following non‐hodgkin lymphoma in an adolescent. A report of a case with preleukemic syndrome, and review of the literature
Patient Acceptance of Health Care
Surgical Procedures, Operative
Reports of acute nonlymphoblastic leukemia occurring after successful treatment of Hodgkin and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) are appearing with increasing frequency. Two years after completion of LSA2-L2 therapy for stage III, poorly differentiated lymphocytic lymphoma, a 16-year-old boy developed a preleukemic state characterized by a refractory macrocytic anemia with excess blasts, dyshematopoiesis, abnormal cluster:colony ratio on in vitro bone marrow culture, and acquired deficiencies of erythrocyte pyruvate kinase, triose phosphate isomerase, and adenylate kinase. Four months later acute myeloblastic leukemia was evident. The RNA index determined by flow cytofluorometry was increased. Four marker chromosomes were found and involved complex translocation of chromosomes 11 and 17 (t11;l17) in 100% of the cells, and chromosomes 4 (t4q;4) in 10% of the cells. A thorough literature search uncovered four other reports of acute nonlymphoblastic leukemia occurring in children treated for NHL and a total of 58 cases in the adult and pediatric age groups. Over 50% of the patients had AML, were mean over 50 years of age, and were treated with radiotherapy and chemotherapy. It is anticipated that additional cases of second malignancies will be reported in this population of patients whose outlook for the curability of the primary malignancy is 75%.