Late results of reconstructive surgery for renovascular disease
Renal Artery Obstruction
In order to determine the late results of reconstructive surgery for renovascular disease, a review was made of a series of 505 consecutive patients who underwent operation over a 20-year period. There were 257 males (50.9%) with an age range of 3-80 years. Renal artery bypass grafts were used in 75.4% (471/625) and thromboendarterectomy and/or patch angioplasty in 15.0% (94/625) of reconstructions. Associated vascular procedures were performed in 38.0% (186/489) of patients. Operative mortality (30-day) was 1.8% (9/489) overall, and 4.8% (9/186) with associated procedures but there was no operative mortality in 303 consecutive isolated renal artery reconstructions. The blood pressure was normal or improved in 65% of patients at a mean follow-up interval of 49.3 months, range 1-240 months. The best response rate was obtained in younger patients with isolated renal lesions. Linear regression analysis showed age at operation to be the most important determinant of blood pressure response (p < 0.003) with the presence or absence of diffuse atherosclerosis as another but less powerful determinant of responsiveness (p < 0.07). Crude 15-year survival was 70% (340/489). The overall five- and ten-year actuarial survival probabilities were 80 and 62% respectively. The most common causes of death were myocardial infarction, stroke, and cancer. Cox regression analysis for variables influencing survival indicated that age at operation (p < 0.001), sex (p < 0.01) and the presence or absence of fibromuscular disease (p < 0.002) were the major determinants of late survival with persistent severe hypertension exerting an important but lesser influence. The results of this study indicate that about two-thirds of patients will experience long-term relief of hypertension after operation and that the best long-term survival and blood pressure relief will be obtained in patients less than 50 years of age. Because hypertension in females is better tolerated, younger, male patients appear to have the most to gain from successful renovascular reconstruction.