Neurological manifestations of hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (rendu‐osler‐weber disease): Report of 2 cases and review of the literature
Telangiectasia, Hereditary Hemorrhagic
Two cases of hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT) with neurological involvement are presented. One patient had multiple vascular malformations including telangiectasias of the brain, medulla, and spinal cord and a berry aneurysm of the internal carotid artery; she also had a large cerebellar abscess, presumably reflecting the presence of a pulmonary arteriovenous fistula. The second patient had an idiopathic subarachnoid hemorrhage. In more than 200 reported patients with HHT involving the nervous system, 61% had lesions seondary to a pulmonary arteriovenous fistula (cerebral hypoxemia, paradoxical and septic emboli, and brain abscess). The findings emphasize the need for early surgical correction of such fistulas. In 36% of the patients with neurological involvement and HHT, vascular malformations of the brain and spinal cord were documented, and in 3%, portal-systemic encephalopathy was noted. Multiple lesions were frequent. HHT should be considered a generalized vascular dysplasia (universal or systemic angiomatosis), and not simply a benign mucocutaneous disease.